In the structure of urban construction planning, land reserved for the construction of technical infrastructure often accounts for a significant proportion of the total area of urban construction land. But the reality is not always satisfy this demand.

Nhat Tan bridge, Hanoi.

In urban centers, land build technical infrastructure are not inherently less strict management and rational use should lead to negative consequences such as traffic congestion, pollution and many schools also destabilize the sociopolitical due to immigration, liberation size too big ground and very costly.

Funds for the rehabilitation of infrastructure projects and expand the roads in Hanoi often very large due to the clearance (clearance), eg route Kim Lien O Cho Dua 1km long on the total cost of construction 1,000 billion, the cost of compensation for land acquisition have accounted for close to 800 billion. Recently Nguyen Van Huyen route lasted only about 600 m has spent 969 billion of which the compensation is more than 600 billion.

Through the above figures show that the costly and complex too large during system construction and renovation of urban infrastructure. So improving the efficiency of land use management in the construction of technical infrastructure in urban areas is a very content should be considered very carefully.

Status of land for urban infrastructure

Land used for the purpose of construction of urban infrastructure including construction land transport infrastructure; land for construction of water supply systems; the construction of waste treatment plants; allocate land for the power supply system in including the safety distance grid occupies a significant proportion of land and land for urban cemetery. Standards and serve the needs for each specialty can calculate a preliminary as follows:

– The area of ​​land devoted to transportation including transportation hub, the street network, traffic still needs to ensure from 20% -25%.

– Land for urban water supply including water supply network which including safety distance pipeline system and water treatment works Total area for water schemes usually accounts 1% of urban land.

– The area of ​​land drained for urban sanitation includes sewer system, system of sewage treatment works, the system works collection and treatment of solid waste. Including estimated land area for urban drainage works an average of 6-7% of urban land.

– For the processing of landfill garbage manner averaged 1.0 kg / person / day, the average area for landfills including isolation distance is estimated at 4% of urban land .

– Land for power supply systems and communication accounts for 3% of the urban area.

– Land for urban cemetery, now the majority of our country is still customary burial. If the condition continues to recur today, in urban areas will not have enough land for this important job.

Thus, the land developed for systems engineering works urban infrastructure minimum estimate represents between 30-35% of the urban area. Obviously need a sizeable land resources to develop the system of urban services.

– Land for traffic, in some large metropolitan area for only about 10% of traffic is low compared to other countries (20-25%). A survey of 25 cities up to 1/2 of over 30% of urban road width <2.5m. Thus the construction of new roads and expanding the old road is inevitable for all municipalities in the coming years.

– Land for sewerage system and water supply systems now often shared with other infrastructure on the main street. Constructions water level in the previous plan, but taking into account a growing demand to expand capacity at the plant, there is no land to build extensions. The wastewater treatment facilities in many years ago and so the latter does not include the right building has no land to build.

– The issue of garbage disposal dumps urban almost always encounter nay.Qua problem collecting data about the building of urban indicators UN HABITAT and cooperation between the Association of Cities of Vietnam shows area used for waste landfills is a difficult problem every municipality should have working solutions in solid waste management to minimize the use of urban land.

– The system of urban electric network still common condition violating construction safety distance grid, many very serious place to become unsafe to people’s lives.

Synthesis of the data collected for the result: land for construction of technical infrastructure of many cities in our country accounts for only around 10-15% of urban land, if compared to the required range (30- 35%) have actually reached only require 1/3 to 1/2. This is the great difficulty of the municipalities in the near future.

Orientation development of urban infrastructure

Bridge the urban transport service in the city. Ho Chi Minh

On 07/04/2009 the Prime Minister issued Decision No. 445 / QD-TTg approving Adjust Orientation master plan for Vietnam’s urban system in 2025 with a vision to 2050 and 07 / 11/2012 Prime Minister issued Decision No. 1659 / QD-TTg approve the program of national urban development for the period 2012 – 2020. This is the main basis for the management and use of infrastructure urban engineering.

In the decision on urban development program has identified Vietnam 2020: The rate of urbanization reached 45% nationwide, urban systems quality assurance suitable to urban and administrative management urban areas, including 02 special grade, urban 312 Type I to type IV and over 620 grade V. Simultaneously urban quality on the surface is significantly improved with very specific targets Can eg land transport Ratio than the area of ​​urban construction land in urban centers in particular, type I and type II reached 20 – 25% or more; Urban from Class III to V achieving 20% ​​or more. Percentage of public passenger transportation needs in urban centers of special grade and grade I reached 20 – 30% or more; Urban II and III reach 10 – 15%; grade IV and V is from 2-5% …

The median lane 2 exploiting build elevated rail line.

As computational needs of urban land use in 2020 will increase from 2-2.5 times higher than at present, accounting for about 7-8% of natural land nationwide. However, according to the experts, favorable land for urban development in each region is very limited, the utilization of new lands encountered difficulties in site clearance compensation.

6/2006 World Bank (WB) has conducted workshops to introduce on matters related to “Urban Development Strategy – Facing the challenge” of rapid urbanization and transition to market economy and in 2012 the World Bank published the document “Assessment of urbanization in Vietnam”. Report of the World Bank said: “Vietnam annually convert 10,000 hectares of agricultural land into urban land, most of the land in suburban areas. It was this seeming contradiction with national policies against loss of agricultural land and ensure basic food security. ”

Once approved oriented, urban system in our country has seen rapid development, however, has appeared much irrationality needed to adjust to fit the long-term development.

– To renovate and develop effective urban project should follow the development of large scale, but in fact in some cities because many conditions have made small-scale projects with Master Resale lo investment in infrastructure outside the boundary fence also is responsible by the city.

Some large urban area of ​​Hanoi as parks Linh Dam, Dinh Cong in previous years state roads from urban areas to the major roads of the city is the small road bottlenecks leading to congestion transport company because there is no accountability in the city has not until recently concerned the new urban area Van Quan proceed to open wide the road Nguyen Trai Street. This is a content should be considered right from the initial synchronization to the construction of a new regional estimates have sufficiently comprehensive and long term.

– Construction of infrastructure will be relocated and resettled a large number of people, so urban development is essentially the process of resettlement. Resettlement in place as some places do will contribute to solving problems for people. Thus the urban renovation project is multidisciplinary projects and to mobilize, respect the role of community participation in discussions and decision-making.

– For the Streets when clearance to expand the road, depending on the planning side strip of land adjacent to the city line boundaries, after expansion should be clearance and compensation for site clearance compensation policy in at that moment. This strip of land is used in the organization of resettlement on the street.

The issue of land price difference when widening is a great content was more water in the region to use effectively.

To properly address this funding to make up for the state and create a fair society. But so far we have not explained is why, what is the most difficult. The question that many people have mentioned, but so far remains unanswered.

Structural urban infrastructure is one of the essential components of a municipality. Technical infrastructure development will facilitate enhanced labor productivity improve quality of life. The World Bank has demonstrated that if increased 1% for investment in infrastructure construction will also increase by 1% of GDP.

Efficient management and use of land for construction of urban technical structure is the best guarantee for the construction, supply, exploitation and use. To ensure the infrastructure to take effect, the role of state authorities and law enforcement agencies is particularly important in the monitoring and handling of law violations and planning of infrastructure, indispensable and active participation of local communities.

Theo TCKTVN